NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Literature Chapter 14 Julius Caesar

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Literature Chapter 14 Julius Caesar are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Literature Reader. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Literature Reader Chapter 14 Julius Caesar.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Literature Reader Chapter 14 Julius Caesar

TextBook Questions

Question 1.
Consult a dictionary and find out the difference between
(a) killing
(b) murder
(c) assassination.
(а) ‘killing’ means : to cause the death of somebody or something
(b) ‘murder’ means : unlawful killing of a human being intentionally
(c) ‘assassination’ means : killing an important or famous person for money or for political reasons.

Question 2.
Popular and powerful leaders have been assassinated in the past and in recent times. Can you name some of them?
• ……………………………………………………………………………..
• ……………………………………………………………………………..
• ……………………………………………………………………………..
• ……………………………………………………………………………..
• ……………………………………………………………………………..
Possible reason for Assassination
Mahatma Gandhi

  • Systematic brainwashing by the people who are staunch racists. As in the case of Gandhiji, hardcore Hindus were against him thinking him to be responsible for creating Pakistan, a separate country.

Indira Gandhi

  • Resistance against authority
  • Arranging the military attack on Harmandir Sahib during Operation Blue Star.

Abraham Lincoln

  • Opposition to his legacy – abolition of slavery in the United States.
  • feeling of insecurity among supporters of slavery.

Martin Luther King Jr.

  • Political motives, i.e. enemies seeking revenge .
  • Deep-seated racial prejudice and jealousy

Rajiv Gandhi

  • Feeling of insecurity among LTTE leaders.
  • To prevent him from coming to power and disarm LTTE.
  • Security lapses
  • Rajiv Gandhi was warned about the possibility of an attack and a threat to his life.
  • Meeting with LTTE delegation, made Rajiv complacent about his security.
    (students may form groups and discuss the above points in detail.)
    In my opinion, assassination is not the end to a problem. One must try to sort out the matter by the means of discussion and looking at the problem with a different outlook.
    Points for discussion in the context of present and past assassinations
    If we look at history, we will find the instances of a large number of politicians assassinated under different circumstances. These are ‘targeted killings’ undertaken for various reasons ranging from political and ideological differences, to attract media attention, etc. Earlier, there was a high demand to kill rulers who impose their rules on the population. In a country like India with many ethnicities and religions and differentTnte’rests, it is very difficult for a ruler or leader to satisfy their preferences and is more likely to attract attacks.

Sometimes an assassination aims at creating chaos, irrespective of the leaders policies. The dominant position of the American President Kennedy, made him an attractive target.
These political murders can be avoided by minimising political oppression.

Question 3.
Discuss in groups the reasons why the leaders you named in (2) were assassinated. Is assassination the end to a problem?
Have a group discussion on the topic in the context of past/present day political assassinations.

Question 4.
The play Julius Caesar can be performed on the stage. The first step would be a reading of the play as a whole class. Your teacher will then have an audition and assign you roles. Later the play can be put up on the stage.
Given below are some suggestions and sites which may be visited for instructions regarding set-design, costumes and direction. 15

Question 5.
Answer the following questions by ticking the correct options.
1. When Caesar says “Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night” he sounds …………
(a) worried
(b) angry
(c) joyous
(d) frightened.
(a) worried

2. Caesar’s reference to the senators as ‘graybeards’ shows his …………
(a) confidence
(b) cowardice
(c) arrogance
(d) ambition.
(c) arrogance

3. Decius Brutus changes Caesar’s mind about going to the Senate by appealing to his …………
(a) ambition
(b) vanity
(c) greed
(d) generosity.
(a) ambition

4. The offer that Cassius makes to Antony after Caesar’s assassination is that …………
(a) the conspirators would like to be friends with him
(b) he may take Caesar’s body to the pulpit and speak to the crowd praising Caesar for his achievements
(c) his recommendations will be as strong as that of the conspirators while distributing the powers and benefits to friends
(d) he may join the conspiracy against Caesar
(c) his recommendations will be as strong as that of the conspirators while distributing the powers and benefits to friends

5. Cassius tries to stop Brutus from letting Antony speak at Caesar’s funeral as he …………
(а) knows the Roman mob loves Caesar and Antony
(b) knows Brutus is not a good orator
(c) knows they should not have killed Caesar
(d) knows Antony is a good orator who can sway the mob.
(d) knows Antony is a good orator who can sway the mob.

6. What prophecy does Antony make over Caesar’s dead body?
(a) Romans will see Caesar’s ghost roaming on the streets
(b) Rome will experience fierce civil war in which many people will die
(c) Rome will be ruled by Ate
(d) Roman women will smile at the death of Caesar.
(b) Rome will experience fierce civil war in which many people will die

7. After listening to Brutus’ speech, the Third Citizen says ‘Let him be Caesar’. This clearly shows he …………
(a) has not understood Brutus’ reason for killing Caesar
(b) loved Caesar more than he loves Brutus
(c) loves Brutus more than he loved Caesar
(d) thinks Brutus killed Caesar to assume power.
(a) has not understood Brutus’ reason for killing Caesar

8. When Antony calls the conspirators ‘honourable men’ his tone is …………
(a) admiring
(b) flattering
(c) angry
(d) mocking
(d) mocking

9. Antony’s reference to Caesar’s conquest of the Nervii is to …………
(а) remind the mob of Caesar’s greatness as a warrior
(b) make the mob feel afraid of being attacked by the war-like race
(c) make the crowd weep for Caesar who died at war
(d) stop and collect his emotions as he is feeling very upset.
(а) remind the mob of Caesar’s greatness as a warrior

10. Antony’s remark Mischief, thou art afoot,
Take thou what course thou wilt! shows him to be …………
(a) a ruthless manipulator
(b) an honourable man
(c) a loyal friend
(d) a tactful man
(d) a tactful man

Question 6.
Answer the following questions briefly:
(a) How do the heavens ‘blaze forth’ the death of Julius Caesar?
It is said that when princes or kings die a star gets pulled from the sky. This star shoots and falls. This leaves behind a shining light. This happened on the day Caesar died.

(b) What does Calpurnia try to convince Caesar of?
Calpurnia tries to convince Caesar not to go to senate house as nature is showing unusual signs. She fears that some untoward incident might happen with her husband.

(c) Why does Calpurnia say ‘Caesar’s wisdom is consumed in confidence’? What does she mean?
Calpurnia tries to convince Caesar against going to Senate House by saying that his reasoning has been devoured by his overconfidence. That is why he is not able to take a right decision whether to go to Senate House or not.

(d) What does Calpurnia dream about Caesar? How does Decius Brutus interpret the dream?
Calpurnia foresees in her dream the assassination of Julius Caesar. She sees in her dream Caesar’s body being transformed into a fountain from which his blood is spouting and Romans smilingly washing their hands in his blood. Brutus interprets that blood coming out of Caesars body shall enrich Rome. People shall soak their handkerchiefs in his blood and keep them as their prized possession fomgenerations to come.

(e) What are the arguments put forward by Decius Brutus to convince Caesar to go to the Capitol?
Brutus says that Romans wanted to offer the crown to the mighty Caesar. If he did not go that day, they might change their minds. He also convinces him that the dream will prove to be auspicious.

(f) Why is Decius more successful than Calpurnia in persuading Caesar?
Decius knew what Caesar wanted to hear. He knew that Caesar would easily be flattered by praise. So he used such a language which flattered him easily whereas Calpurnia was very fearful of her husbands wellbeing. So her language and tone did not match Caesars way of thinking. Caesar also thought that his wife was asking him to act as a coward.

(g) What is the petition put before Caesar by the conspirators? How does Caesar respond to it?
The conspirators put a supplication before Caesar that he should free Publius Cimber from banishment. Caesar refuses to do so.

(h) Who says “Et tu Brute”? When are these words spoken? Why?
These words were the last words of Julius Caesar when he was being stabbed by his own friends. These were spoken as his closest friend Brutus also stabbed him. Caesar could not believe that such a close friend could also backstab him.

(i) In the moments following Caesar’s death what do the conspirators proclaim to justify Caesar’s death?
The conspirators proclaimed that Caesar was so ambitious that he would have enslaved all the Roman citizens.. Thus they killed Caesar to protect Rome and her people from him. Also that he would have become a tyrant.

(j) Seeing the body of Caesar, Antony is overcome by grief What does he say about Caesar?
Antony is overwhelmed with grief on seeing Caesar’s body. He proclaims that in spite of his conquests, glories, triumphs and spoils, he lies so low. He offers to be killed and lie by Caesars side and he calls the conspirators as ‘choice’ and ‘master spirits’ of his age.

(k) Whom does Antony call “the choice and master spirits of this age”? Why?
Antony calls Brutus and the others who have murdered Caesar as ‘the choice and master spirits of this age’ because they are the ones who take this decision to murder somebody as great as Caesar. He wants them to even kill him and lay him beside Caesar.

(l) How do Brutus and Cassius respond to Antony’s speech?
Brutus asks Antony not to beg for his own death because they had killed Caesar with a purpose. They are not Antony’s enemies. He offers his arms of friendship to Antony and proclaims him to be their friend. Cassius says that with Antony by their side, he shall be strong like others and Antony’s words will carry much credibility as anybody else in the distribution of the new offices and honours.

(m) Why does Cassius object to allowing Antony to speak at Caesar’s funeral? How does Brutus overcome this objection?
Cassius objects to allowing Antony to speak at Caesar’s funeral because he fears that Antony would move the people against them. Brutus overrules the objection saying that he himself would speak first and give a reason for Caesar’s murder. He will also tell people that Antony had been allowed to speak by his permission and that he should speak only after him.

(n) What are the conditions imposed by the conspirators before allowing Antony to speak at Caesar’s funeral?
Conspirators agree to allow Antony to speak but Brutus will speak first giving reasons for killing Caesar. Antony could speak only after Brutus finishes and he must tell people that he had been given permission to speak by Cassius and Brutus. He would speak from the same pulpit as Brutus. Antony should not blame them for the killing of Julius Caesar.

(o) When he is left alone with the body of Caesar what does Antony call Brutus and the others?
Antony begs pardon for he is being meek and gende with Caesar’s killers. He calls Caesar ‘a bleeding piece of earth’ and ‘ruins of the noblest man that ever lived in the tide of times’. He curses the hands that shed the cosdy blood of Caesar.

(p) What prediction does Antony make regarding the future events in Rome?
Antony predicts that ‘domestic fury and fierce civil strife’ shall spread in Italy. Blood and destruction shall rage the country. Mothers shall go mad and smile when they’ll see their children slaughtered. The earth shall be covered with dead bodies lying for burial. Caesar’s spirit shall roam about for revenge and his spirit will be accompanied by Ate, the goddess of strife, who would come from hell.

(q) What reasons does Brutus give for murdering Caesar?
Brutus says that he loved Caesar but loved Rome more. If Caesar had lived, he would have made all Romans slaves because he was ‘ambitious’. Would the people of Rome have liked that? They killed Caesar so that the people of Rome could be free. Brutus puts Caesar in wrong light saying that Caesar was ‘ambitious’. Therefore he had killed Caesar for the good of the country.

(r) Who says, “Let him be Caesar”? What light does this throw on the speaker?
Third citizen says that. The speaker had deep respect and regard for the person spoken about. He idealises Caesar and wishes to give the same respectable position to Brutus.

(s) Why is Antony’s speech more effective?
Antony’s speech is more effective because he knows what and how to speak. He articulates emotionally and tactfully to arouse emotions of the crowd so as to prepare them to take revenge.

(t) At the end of the scene what is the fate of Brutus and Cassius?
Brutus and Cassius fall apart. They are defeated in a war with Antony and Octavius Caesar and later they commit suicide.

Question 7.
Julius Caesar and Antony reveal something about their character in their words and actions. We also learn about them from what other people say. Can you pick out the words that describe them from the box given below ? Also, pick out lines from the play to illustrate your choice.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Literature Chapter 14 Julius Caesar 2NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Literature Chapter 14 Julius Caesar 2

Person Extract from play What it tells us about the character


1. the things that threaten’d me Ne’er look’d but on my back; when they shall see The face of Caesar, they are vanished 1. arrogant
2. ___________________________
3. ___________________________
4. ___________________________
5. ___________________________
6. ___________________________
Mark Antony 1.___________________________
1. Loyal
2. ___________________________
3. ___________________________
4. ___________________________

Words for Julius Caesar

What it tells us about the character Extract from play
overconfident …danger knows full well That Caesar is more dangerous than he! We are two lions litter’d in one day…
brave Yet Caesar shall go forth; for these predictions Are to the world in general as to Caesar.
great conqueror ..0 mighty Caesar! dost thou lie so low? Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, Shrunk to this little measure?….
generous To every Roman citizen he gives, To every several man, seventy-five drachmas.
firm If I could pray to move, prayers would move me: But I am constant as the northern star, ….
Words for Antony
Loyal 1. Shall it not grieve thee dearer than thy death, To see thy Antony making his peace.
2. Thou art the ruins of the noblest man. That ever lived in the tide of times.
manipulate When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept: Ambition should be made of sterner stuff: Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honourable man.
good orator 1. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to buy Caesar, not to praise him.
2. Now mark him, he begins again to speak.
3. To stir men’s blond. I only speak right on I tell you that which you yourselves do know,.. Cassius: You know not what you do: do not consent, that Antony speak in his funeral:

Question 8.
In the play ‘Julius Caesar’, we meet the Roman mob. We find that as Brutus and Antony speak, the mob displays certain qualities and characteristics.
Given below are some characteristics of the mob. Complete the table by quoting the lines wherein these are revealed.

Words/ actions of the mob Characteristics
1. ___________________ Fooolish
2. ___________________ Does not understand the ideals of de­mocracy
3. ___________________ Emotional
4. ___________________ Greedy
5. ___________________ Fickle
4. ____________________ Violent


Words/ actions of the mot Characteristics
First Citizen This Caesar was a tyrant. Third Citizen Nay, that’s certain. We are blest that Rome is rid of hirm ’ Fooolish
Second Citizen: We will be revenged All Revenge! AboutlSeek! Burn! Fire! Kill! Stay! let not a traitor live! Does not understand the ideals of democracy
Second Citizen: Poor soul his eyes are red as fire with weeping.
Third Citizen : There’s not a noble man in Rome than Antony.
All: The will the testa ment!
Second Citizen: They were villians, murderers the will! read the will.
Fourth Citizen: Read the will; will hear it, Antony; You shall read us the will, Caesar’s will.
First Citizen: Me thinks there is much reason in his sayings.
Second Citizen: If thou consider rightly of the matter,
Caesar has had great wrong.
Third Citizen: Has he, masters?
1 fear there will a worse come in his place.
All: We’ll mutiny
First Citizen: We’ll, burn the house of Brufus.
First Citizen: We’ll burn his body in the holy place, and with the brands fire the traitor’s houses.

Question 9.
Antony employs a number of devices to produce the desired effect on the mob. These devices maybe described as rhetorical devices. He first speaks in such a manner that it seems to the mob that he is in full agreement with Brutus about Caesar. Then step by step he moves away from Brutus’ position, depicting Brutus as a villain and Caesar as a wronged man. Copy and complete the following table by showing how Antony builds the argument in Caesar’s favour.

Antoy’s words Argument
1. I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. Does not wish to eulogise Caesar

2. The noble Brutus
Hath told you Caesar was ambitious :
If it were so, it was a grievous fault,
And grievously hath Caesar answer’d it.

Seemingly agrees with Brutus
3., He was my friend, faithful and just to me. But Brutus says h% was ambitious; And Brutus is an honourable man. Suspects Brutus’ intentions
4. 1 speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here 1 am to speak what 1 do know.
You all did love him once, not without cause:
What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him?
Tries to restore citizen’s faith in Caesar’s greatness.
5. O masters, if 1 were disposed to stir Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage……………… 1 rather choose. To wrong the deed, to wrong myself and you……….. Succeeded in making the citizens realise Brutus’,
wrong doing and change their views about Caesar.
6. Would ruffle up your spirits and put a  ongue in every wound of Caesar that should move The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny. Openly proves Brutus wrong and challenges public to take revenge of Caesar’s death.

Question 10.
Read the extracts given below and answer the questions that follow :

1. Caesar: Cowards die many times before their deaths ;
The valiant never taste of death but once.
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard.
It seems to me most strange that men should fear ;
Seeing that death, a necessary end,
Will come when it will come.
(a) Whom is Caesar speaking to? Why does he say these words?
(b) What fears has the listener expressed?
(c) What is the basis for the fears expressed?
(a) Caesar is speaking to his wife, Calpurnia. Calpurnia expresses her fears to him that she has seen a bad dream and Caesar should not go out. Caesar, being brave, does not agree with her and says these words to make her understand the futility of her dreams.
(b) The listener has expressed the fear of Caesar being killed by somebody.
(c) The speaker, Calpurnia, has seen most unnatural things in the dream like a lioness yelping, blood drizzling frormsky; ghost shrieking, etc. that makes her request Caesar to stay at home and not go out.

2. But here’s a parchment with the seal of Caesar ;
I found it in his closet, ’tis his Will:
Let but the commons hear this testament—
Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read—
And they would go and kiss dead Caesar’s wounds
(a) Who speaks these words? Where is the speaker at this moment?
(b) What are the contents of Caesar’s Will that he is referring to?
(c) Why does the speaker read Caesar’s Will to the citizens?
(d) What is the reaction of the listeners to the reading of the Will?
(a) Antpny speaks these words. He is at the market-place speaking to the mob from the pulpit.
(b) Caesar has given every Roman citizen, seventy-five drachmas and he has also left his orchards and private harbours for all the people.
(c) The speaker wants to unveil the truth, in front of everybody. He has resolved to avenge the murder of Caesar.
(d) The listeners are aroused and realize the truth. They repent their folly of misunderstanding Caesar and decide to take a revenge.


Question 11.
Stage a press conference that takes place shortly after Caesar’s death. The “reporters” should have their questions written down ahead of time to ask the students who play the roles of Brutus, Antony, and Cassius. These questions should focus on the key events in the play, as well as the characters’ intentions.
Reporter (to Brutus): Caesar was your friend, still you killed him. Do you think you are right in doing this?
Brutus: Yes, I don’t think I have done anything wrong. You can see only my deed but you don’t know the reason behind that. Caesar was overambitious and in Rome’s interest, it was necessary to kill him.
Reporter (To Cassius) Do you have any comments to make on the conspiracy that you instigated? Can you justify your action?
Cassius: Of course, we have our own honourable motives behind the conspiracy. Caesar was getting too ambitious to become a dictator. Morover he was not ready „ to free Publius Cimber.
Reporter (to Antony) What do you have to say in this regard? Do you agree with what they say?
Antony: I am top shocked to utter even a single word. The mighty Caesar is no more! My grief knows no bounds! To agree or not to agree with them is not a matter of concern. What matters to me more is why they have killed Caesar at all?
Reporter (To Brutus): What is your real motive behind asking Antony to join you? Do you intend to hide your crime?
Brutus: I have not committed any crime. I offer fo receive Antony out of love and respecf for him as he is a nice person.
Reporter (To Antony) What is your attitude towards the offer that you have from Brutus?
Antony: I am keen to know the reasons behind Caesar’s murder. Before accepting – their offer, I want to take Caesar’s body to the market place and speak at the funeral ceremony.
Cassius disagrees but Brutus satisfies him by saying that he need not worry about that and the conference dispersed.

Question 12.
Questions for Further Study:
Given below are some questions based on reading of the play ‘Julius Caesar’. These questions are not for testing in the Exam. These are for a deeper understanding of the play and the characters.
(a) Why was the conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar hatched?
(b) Was Caesar really ambitious? Find evidence from the play to support your answer.
(c) What was Cassius’ motive for murdering Julius Caesar?
(d) Why was it essential for the conspirators to include Brutus in the conspiracy?
(e) What were the mistakes made by Brutus that led to the failure of the conspiracy?
(f) Comment on Caesar’s friendship with Antony.
(g) Write a brief character sketch of Antony.
(h) What is the role of Julius Caesar’s ghost in the play, Julius Caesar?
(i) Why does Antony call Brutus ‘the noblest Roman of them all’?
(j) How do Brutus and Cassius meet their end?
(a) Decius Brutus and Cassius were jealous of Caesar’s growing popularity and thought Caesar was too ambitious to get the crown. In spite of being Caesars friend, Brutus joined the conspiracy with Cassius to bring democracy in Rome.
(b) No, Caesar was not ambitious. He refused the crown that Mark Antony offered him after his victorious return.

(c) Cassius wanted to be powerful but Caesar’s growing power and the fear that Caesar might become a dictator one day, prompted him to instigate a conspiracy to murder Caesar.

(d) Brutus was the most trusted and respected in Rome and to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the Romans, it was necessary for the conspirators to win over the noble Brutus to their side.

(e) Brutus allowed Antony to speak at the funeral ceremony of Caesar. Though Cassius had warned him beforehand, he allowed Antony to speak and that led to the failure of the conspiracy.

(f) Caesar and Antony were great friends. Antony was Caesars most loyal friend. He was gready pained to see Caesar’s body lying on the ground and requested Cassius to kill him also as he could not bear separation from Caesar.

(g) Antony was a good orator and a loyal friend who, by the power of his geniuses, was able to reveal the reality of the conspirators before the general public. He was agonised deeply on losing his best friend, Caesar, and resolved to take revenge on the conspirators at all costs. He was just and determined.

(h) Antony prophesied that Caesar’s ghost would come with Ate, the Greek goddess of revenge, and would cry ‘Havoc’ in a voice suitable to a monarch. The foul deed of the murderers would come to the fore making them unable to bear the pain, they would groan for burial amidst all the chaos and confusion of war.

(i) Antony calls Brutus, ‘the noblest Roman of them all’ in a satirical manner. He wanted Romans to know the malicious motives of Brutus and avenge Caesar’s death.

(j) Antony was able to incite the mob against Brutus and Cassius very cleverly. They vowed to burn Caesar’s body in the holy place and with the brands fire the traitors’ houses. They met their end and Antony was able to avenge the death of Caesar.

Question 13.
A reporter covers the event of the assassination of Julius Caesar in the senate giving graphic details and a catchy headline. Write the newspaper report in about 200 words.

The Mighty Caesar Falls

I witnessed the brutal and cold-Blooded murder of Caesar by his great friend Brutus and other conspirators that included the honourable Cassius as well.

It came as a shock when Caesar was caught unawares and attacked by sword repeatedly by Cassius, Brutus and other conspirators. The blood of the bold and courageous general was there for all to see. Such a valiant general who brought laurels to Rome was brutally murdered. These men were jealous of his fame and popularity. Antony who loved Caesar took his body to the public place where all the people of Rome could see it.

Brutus was the first one to address the people. He justified the murder saying that Caesar had become too ambitious and that prompted them to take such a step. He said that he loved Caesar but loved his country more than Caesar. The people of Rome were convinced with what he said. Then came Antony who drew the attention of the people to the valiant Caesar and what all he had done for his country and countrymen. He told them that Caesar had bequeathed his will to the people of Rome. It is then that people understood the wrong done by the conspirators. They decided to avenge the killing of Caesar.

We hope the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Literature Chapter 14 Julius Caesar help you. If you have any query regarding NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Literature Reader Chapter 14 Julius Caesar, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.


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